paper #1 dana
The covid-19 global pandemic and the connection of the developing international slowdown call into inquisition involving the wide range of financial revelations and requiring innovative clarifications to different interlinked societal predicaments. Therefore, progression and the expanse of the virus created a system of economic trade that affected the social outcome that influences the market’s supply and demand concept. Market manufacturing is the primary outcome with the most prevailing views for establishing the cultural behavior’s insight into the potential to guarantee a level of impartiality in supplying stores (Hathaway, 2020). Moreover, the global threat of the covid-19 pandemic affects various cultures to impose structural adjustment in contrast to multiple circumstances that involve many social situations. Therefore, one specific area affected is that of a country that works hard to maintain its self-sufficiency. Because the virus reaches Africa’s nation, that presents the destructive rule of neoclassical ideas that impact the finance notions (Howard, 2021).
However, since the pandemic hit generated a high demand for sufficient personal protective equipment (EPP), which also plays a more significant part in protecting the people due to lack of examinations and vaccines; that are not readily available compared to other countries. Therefore, a limited supply of medical items that are needed to fight off the virus is a much-needed aspect that influences the production interests and availability. The diagnoses of economics and related methods have expanded globally and have dominated both the Westland and Africa. So, mainstream distribution means are restricted in their ability to imagine the fundamental and institutional difficulties of improvement, which have become even more challenging with African countries at the more moderate end of the nationwide supply trade (Howard, 2021). The covid-19 pandemic created an additional motivation that involves the social discussion concerning the imperfections in the greater outlook in economic practices that affected control and reduce administration management and expense (Ranald, 2020). The global finance practices system maximizes economic expense with the general policy situation involving supply and demand series for the market economic exchanges with the pandemic motivation.
Hathaway, T. (2020). Corporate Planning in the Coronavirus Economy. https://www.developingeconomics.org
Howard, S. (2021). The pathology of economics. https://www.developingeconomics.org
Ranald, P. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemic Slows Global Trade and Exposes Flaws in Neoliberal Trade Policy. Journal of Australian Political Economy, 85, 108-114.
In modern crime theories, some believe that there are predisposed genetic markers that could indicate the potential to criminal behavior, or antisocialism. A look into the novel virus COVID 19 might shed some light on whether or not this theory could hold water. Genetics is a recent phenomenon that studies DNA and certain traits people might pass on with their DNA. It is believed that if certain genes could indicate the potential for certain problems, then recognizing the risk of any given problem identified through genetics, can be avoided.
With the virus COVID 19, studies are being done to indicate the most vulnerable. In recent research it has been discovered that Black and Asian ethnic groups have a higher risk of complications that White ethnic groups (Pan, D., etc., 2020) There are several factors that can be associated with this as Black ethnic groups have a higher complications with cardiovascular disease and diabetes while Asian ethnic groups have a higher percentage with complications with coronary artery disease. These comorbidities could make COVID 19 high risk infections. Other studies have shown that men have a better chance of being infected with the COVID 19 virus due to a strong reaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor which is an X chromosome linked gene (Darbeheshi and Rezaej, 2020).
Just like modern bio criminology, just because you are predisposed to certain behaviors and illnesses, it does not mean you will contract the virus, or that you would act on criminal behavior. These identifications would have identified earlier treatments and therapies that could help combat the effect an illness can have on a person.
Darbeheshti, F. and Rezaej, N. (2020), Genetic Predisposition Model to COVID 19 Infection, National Center for Biotechnology Information, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202332/
Pan, D., Sze, S., NinhaI, J., Bangash, M., Pareek, N., Divall, P., Williams, G., Oggioni, M., Squire, I., Nellums, L., Hanie, W., Kaunite, K., and Pareek, M. (2020) The Impact of Ethnicity on Clinical Outcomes in COVID 19: A Systematic Review, The Lancet Regional Health, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(20)30148-6/6/text
Various factors expose a person to becoming a victim of crime. Just as the criminals have careers in crime, some people can also be told to become repeat victims of crime. In an article analyzing the routine activities theory, Holt and Bossler (2008) argues that the lifestyle activities theory can explain why some people become an easy target for criminals. After reviewing the article, I realized that one activity that makes me prone to becoming a cybercrime victim is using one password to signup to many websites. The hackers normally target weak websites and use the obtained passwords to access the more secure sites. Apart from cyber risk, there other activities that put me at risk of physical crime. For instance, carrying a lot of cash puts a person at risk of being mugged. Also, going home late in the night puts me at risk of becoming a victim of crime.
Each of the activities that put me at risk of becoming a victim of crime can be reduced. For instance, to avoid being a cyber-attack victim, I should ensure that I use a strong password for every website. In an article analyzing the implications of simple passwords, Li, Wang, and Sun (2017) states that people should use strong passwords and change them regularly to avoid being hacked. Also, I will be using credit and debit cards and avoid carrying large sums of liquid cash. I will also avoid traveling at night so that I can minimize the probability of being attacked. Some of the changes might be impractical, such as traveling at night. This is because I might get some job assignments or travel far distances, which might make me get home late. In such a situation, I would ensure that I alert my family members and get a person to accompany me for security.
Holt, T. J., and Bossler, A.M. (2008). Examining the applicability of lifestyle-routine activities theory for cybercrime victimization. Deviant Behavior, 30(1), 1-25.
Li, Y., Wang, H., Sun, K. (2017). Personal information in passwords and its security implications. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 12(10), 2320-2333.
paper #4 Kimmy
When I think about what puts me at risk of exposure to criminally inclined persons, I think about what my wife is always telling me; she tells me I am not on duty. I have a terrible habit of seeing things that people are doing wrong even when off duty, and I want to act on what they are doing. The trouble with this is that the people doing wrong do not know who I am or that I am a law enforcement officer. Now that I think about it, this could turn me into a victim. As a law enforcement officer, I know the bad areas of the city I work. Going to these bad areas out of uniform could lead to someone who may recognize me as a law enforcement officer and could retaliate against me.
Another exposure to a criminally inclined person that I find myself doing is in Tennessee; it is against the law to hold and use a cell phone while driving. I sometimes will pull up next to a person using their cell phone and look at them while using their phones because cell phone use while driving has been proving to cause accidents and fatalities (Rocco and Sampaio, 2016). Law enforcement is a stressful job, and law enforcement is considered the most stressful occupation out of all public service jobs (Suresh, Anantharaman, Angusamy, and Ganesan, 2013). It can be so stressful that I should not take the job home with me when I am off duty. There have been many officers who have died because of the stress of the job
To reduce me from exposure to criminally inclined person, I should listen to my wife’s advice. When I am off duty, I should not act as a law enforcement officer in non-life-threatening situations; If anything, I should call dispatch and be a good witness when the on-duty police arrive at the scene.
Rocco, L., Sampaio, B. (2016). Are handheld cell phone and texting bans really effective in reducing deaths? Empirical Economics, 51(2), 853-876. https://doi-org.bethelu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s00181-015-1018-8
Suresh, R. S., Anantharaman, R. N., Angusamy, A., And Ganesan, J. (2013). Sources of job stress in police work in a developing country. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(13), 102.