Read/review the following resources for this activity:
- Textbook: Chapter 18, 19, 20
- Weekly Concepts
Initial Post Instructions
Some microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Yesinia pestis, E. coli can cause diseases of different body systems. Let’s investigate how the same pathogen is responsible for different pathophysiological symptoms. First, choose a microorganism found in multiple systems. Then, describe your pathogen’s role in disease for one body system: report the disease caused, the normal function of that system, pathophysiological symptoms, and the virulence factor(s) that contribute(s) to the diseased state.
Viral skin diseases like smallpox were among the first diseases to be eradicated through vaccination program, but now we see more outbreaks of measles, mumps and polio diseases for which we have vaccinations. Why do you think some diseases are appearing again? What is your understanding about diseases like malaria and Ebola, and can we eradicate these through vaccination programs? What is the role of CDC in controlling the spread of these communicable diseases and their treatment?
Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer or the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.
- Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
- Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
- APA format for in-text citations and list of references
Hello Professor and Class,
Viral skin diseases were eradicated through vaccination programs, however, I believe they are resurfacing such as Smallpox, Poliomyelitis (polio), malaria, and hookworm for reasons such as parents/ guardians not vaccinating a child or it can also be because of travelers reintroducing the diseases. The World Health Organization, a United Nations specialized agency in charge of universal public health, reported that the rise in measles is a direct result of anti-vaccination movements (WHO 2020). According to the CDC, you can help prevent your child from as many as 14 diseases before the age of 2!
Malaria is an endemic in West Africa (Cowan 2017), caused by a microorganism that is spread by mosquitoes and kills between 440,000 and 700,000 people worldwide each year. Since mosquitoes are most aggressive in the nighttime, the safest way for inhabitants of developed countries to prevent infection with the malaria-causing agent is to sleep under a bed net (Cowan 2017). According to the CDC (2020), “Africa is the most affected due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito (Anopheles gambiae complex) is responsible for high transmission. The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum , which is the species that is most likely to cause severe malaria and death.”
Fun Fact (but no so fun): Before the time of antibiotics, doctors reasoned that patients who had syphilis should be treated with malaria, in which the high temperature would kill the relatively fragile bacterium, and then they could cure the patient of the malaria with quinine. It performed on occasion; of course, once antibiotics became available, this practice became obsolete. Being infected with malaria has been used to also treat patients with HIV (1990’s), and even more recently, Lyme Disease (Cowan 2017).
Ebola is a virus (that was seen more in Africa although other countries have had cases as well) that can cause extensive bleeding, organ failure, and even death; unfortunately on the rise. Ebola has a high death rate, and other diseases which can cause long-term disabilities such as polio, neonatal rubella. By contact with body fluids such as blood, humans will transmit the virus to other humans. Fever, fatigue, body pain, and chills are among the first symptoms. Internal bleeding can occur later, resulting in bloody vomiting or coughing. According to the CDC (2020), “Factors like population growth, encroachment into forested areas, and direct interaction with wildlife (such as bushmeat consumption) may have contributed to the spread of the Ebola virus. Since its discovery in 1976, the majority of cases and outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease have occurred in Africa.”
There are currently no vaccines for malaria or ebola.
The CDC is in charge of preventing the development and transmission of infectious diseases, as well as providing advice and support to other countries and foreign organizations in order to help them improve their disease prevention and control, environmental protection, and health promotion efforts.