Hr discussion | Human Resource Management homework help

 

  • Propose two challenges that an organization may experience when using technology in its performance management process.
  • Analyze the overall impact of each challenge on an organization’s ability to achieve its performance management goals.
  • Suggest one strategy that the organization can use to address each challenge. Justify your response.

     See slide notes below:

Slide   #

Topic

Narration

 

1

Introduction

Welcome to Performance Management. In this lesson, we will be discussing   technology and performance management. 

Please go to the next slide. 

 

2

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

Evaluate the use of technology in the   performance management process.

Please go to the next slide. 

 

3

Supporting   Topics

Specifically, we will discuss the   following topics:

Technology’s role in performance   management;

Aligning technology to the goals and   purposes of performance management;

Complications created by technology;

Implementing a technology-based   performance management system; and, 

Best practices of using technology for   performance management.

Please go to the next slide. 

 

4

Technology of   the Past

Technology has supported performance   management long before the personal computer became standard on every   desktop. In particular, two bodies of   research relevant to technology and performance management existed in the   industrial psychology literature. 

We will start with electronic   performance monitoring or EPM. This   includes surveillance, measurement, recording, and compilation of   work-related activities of employees using electronic means to measure   performance through indicators such as productivity, accuracy, speed, and   errors. EPM’s criticism that it invades worker privacy by being so closely   monitored developed an off-shoot of research into guidelines and best   practices for the development of EPM. 

Telecommuting indeed has its benefits   for both the organization and the individual worker, however, from a   performance management perspective, there have been some challenges to   accurately assess performance when the individual is not physically present   with the manager during the performance assessment. The research stresses the importance of   developing clear, objective goals; making work agreements or contracts; and   monitoring employee achievements of goals in an objective manner, such as   based on results rather than activities. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

5

Technology as an   Enabler

Technology can be used to support   performance management tasks such as strategic, administrative,   informational, developmental, organizational maintenance, and documentational.   

In the next two slides we will discuss how   technology can be used to serve these six functions.  

Please go to the next slide. 

 

6

Technology as an   Enabler, continued

The strategic purpose of any performance   management system is to align individual goals with the organization’s larger   goals or objectives. Research   indicates an increase in employee morale when employees are given the   opportunity to see how individually they work to meet the larger goals of the   firm. 

Therefore, technology can be used   strategically to set goals in a systematic way and allow the resulting goals   be accessible to all employees. Technology allows these goals to be communicated in real-time, which   is an advantage for the organization and employees.

Administratively, technology houses   large amounts of data in one place that makes retrieval effortless. Technology, then, should be used to make   this data readily available for data extraction, data sharing, summarizing,   reporting, and comparing for an individual, a department, or the entire   organization. This makes decision making less time consuming than using   paper-based files and data.

On the informational side, technology is   efficient at updating performance goals, giving just-in-time feedback, and   giving performance-focused communication. 

   Please go to the next slide.

 

7

Technology as an   Enabler, continued

Technology can aid performance   management in individual development efforts towards short-term and long-term   career planning. Technology can be   used to collect performance feedback and assess career planning efforts   underway. 

Organizational maintenance refers to   workplace planning activities, such as current and future staffing   decisions. Technology can also be used   to conduct a talent audit, whereas current stock is taken of the workforce’s   skills, abilities, and experiences for the purposes of forecasting future   needs and making strategic business decisions. 

Lastly, technology can house a lot of   data and documentation in a more efficient manner than a paper-based system.   Whether these are personnel files, performance appraisals, annual goals, or   career planning, retrieving data when needed no matter where the individual   who needs it is housed, can give a strategic advantage to an   organization. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

8

Check Your   Understanding

 

9

Technology’s   Role in the Process

The process of performance management   involves six steps: 

prerequisites; 

performance planning; 

performance execution; 

performance assessment; 

performance review; and, 

performance renewal and recontracting. 

In the next two slides we will discuss   how technology can be used in each of these functions. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

10

Technology’s   Role in the Process, continued

The first step, appropriately called the   prerequisite step, includes the identification of a company’s strategic goals   and the completion of job analysis activities for the targeted   positions. Technology can assist in   accomplishing these by developing and communicating the organization’s   mission and priorities as well as ensuring that unit-level missions and   priorities are in alignment with the organization. 

Performance planning entails developing   a shared understanding of expected behaviors and results, which are then   specified in a performance plan. Technology may be used to assist an employee and manager in creating   and storing a performance plan. Technology makes real-time adaptations easy. 

Performance execution involves the   activities associated with the performance management system that involves   both the employee and the manager. These activities include setting goals, seeking and giving feedback,   and preparing for performance reviews, to name just a few of the many   activities involved. Technology can be   useful here by providing one platform to integrate all these functions into   one place, thus making it easy to record data for decision making   purposes. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

11

Technology’s   Role in the Process, continued

Many managers, and organizations for   that matter, wait until weeks or even days before a performance review to   collect and analyze data. Technology   can be useful when it comes to performance assessments by collecting a   variety of metrics across time, which avoids the error of weighing recent   performance more heavily on appraisals. It is also capable of collecting subjective performance ratings, such   as quality of deliverables and timeliness of meeting objectives. 

The performance review process has been   criticized for its inability to generate communication that results in   improved performance. Here’s where   technology can make the performance review process a bit more effective. A robust performance management system can   alert managers to the optimal time for reviewing performance, rather than relying   on a standard schedule. When managers   wait for the annual or semi-annual appraisal period, improvement   communication may be too late. A   just-in-time system giving managers the data needed to align performance to   the goals will more likely result in communication that will be able to   change performance behaviors. 

Activities in the performance renewal   and recontracting phase refer back to those in the performance planning   stage. Here the manager collaborates   with the employee to consider revision of the performance plan from the   previous cycle, taking into account all available information collected in   the intervening time frame. 

Please go to the next slide. 

 

12

Technology as a   Challenge

Technology never works perfectly,   especially when integrating multiple types of technologies to do a variety of   tasks with users who vary in knowledge and skills to use the systems. 

Next we will discuss some of the   challenges associated with using technology for performance management   functions. These challenges include: 

information overload; 

overexposure; 

time requirements; 

over-reliance on automation; 

miscommunication; and, 

lastly, technology literacy. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

13

Technology as a   Challenge, continued

The first challenge is information   overload. The opportunity to input,   extract, summarize, and report data all at the touch of your fingertips may   actually cause more stress and more working overtime. 

This is a real problem for organizations   and can be reduced through the creation of a graphical display of how the   system components are organized and where the user currently is located in   reference to the system’s broader structure. Offering search functions based on key works can also reduce   information overload. 

Overexposure is diluting the importance   and value of the information being used. A way to overcome overexposure is to develop ways to make inactions   with the system engaging and by making sure that every request for data is necessary   and includes an explanation as to the reason for the request. 

Automation is often viewed as a   productivity enhancing tool. However, if the system is slow or clunky, it may   actually reduce efficiencies. This   will cause great frustration over time for employees who regularly interact with   such systems. 

A recommendation for reducing the time   necessary to input and access performance management data is to take “pulse   surveys.” A pulse survey includes a   short set of questions that is administered more frequently than traditional   annual employee surveys, often in an attempt to measure the “pulse” of an   organization over time and with less intrusion on employees. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

14

Technology as a   Challenge, continued

An over-reliance on automation occurs   when leaders believe the performance management technology will replace the   manager in the performance management system. To combat this attitude, set the expectation that technology supports,   not replaces the manger, in the performance management process. 

Miscommunication is common whether   face-to-face, on the telephone, or through email or instant messaging. Technology makes it so easy to communicate   that sometimes the ease of communicating replaces full consideration of the   context that needs to be communicated. This is how miscommunication through these technological advances   happens. Miscommunication in   performance management systems can be mitigated through the use of a separate   performance-specific system to enter and access performance management   information. 

The last challenge we will discuss is   technology literacy. In any   organization there are varying degrees of technology literacy. Even in a   technological company you would find a range of literacy and comfort levels   regarding the use of technology. In order to fully interact with a   technological based performance management system, everyone who is using the   system needs hands on training and job aids in order to interact with the   system fully and efficiently. 

Please go to the next slide.

 

15

Check Your Understanding

 

16

Taking   Technology System-wide

Technology can   automate many of the performance management functions. In implementing a technological strategy   there are a few considerations an organization should spend time analyzing. 

First, the   organization should decide whether they should buy a system or build it. This decision is often based on whether or   not internal resources are available to build the system, the level of   customization needed in the system, and the financial resources available for   the project. 

Second,   integrating technology into an organization whose employees will have varying   degrees of technology literacy requires a change management approach. Enterprise-wide implementations of   technology solutions do fail on a regular basis. The failure often stems from employee   resistance. Implementation of   technology across the organization should be treated like any other   large-scale change initiative in the organization. 

Significant   focused must be placed on developing the content that will be housed within   the solution and the tools that will maximize the effectiveness of the   content. The content is king when   making enterprise-wide solutions regarding technology. 

Lastly, an   organization should keep integration in mind. An organization that is going to a technology-based performance   management system may also have a technology based system for learning and   development, for recruitment and selection, and for tracking attendance,   sales, and scheduling. Users of these   systems will work more efficiently with the systems if integration is   considered in the front-end analysis of taking the technology system-wide. 

Please go to the   next slide. 

 

Please go to the   next slide.

 

17

Best Practices

To conclude this   lecture, we will highlight a few of the many best practices for using   technology in the performance management system. 

In the area   capitalizing on the benefits a technology-based performance management system   can offer, first, allow ready access to performance management information   across the enterprise, making sure everyone who needs the information has   access to it. Next, document   performance-related conversations and actions and automate requests for   performance feedback on a project basis. 

In the area of   avoiding complications, it is suggested that a user-friendly interface be   created in order to make the system efficient to interact with. Also, the organization should provide   adequate training on how to use the system and execute a communication   campaign to ensure that all those who will utilize the system are familiar   and comfortable with the technology prior to its implementation. 

Let’s wrap up   with three best practices for implementing an automated PM system. One, ensure clear performance management   process have been established. Two,   establish a comprehensive internal support system for users after the system   goes live. And three, create a   long-term implementation plan for integration across human resource and   operational applications to that the maximum benefits of an automated   performance management solution can be achieved. 

Please go to the   next slide. 

 

18

Summary

We have now reached the end of this   lesson. Let’s take a look at what we   covered.

We started by talking about technology’s   role in electronic performance monitoring and telecommuting. These two areas made up our discussion   about technology of the past. 

We then moved to the six performance   management functions of a performance management system and how technology   can assist. 

This was followed by technology’s role   in the process of a performance management system. The six roles are: 

prerequisites; 

performance planning; 

performance execution; 

performance assessment, 

performance review, and, 

performance renewal and   recontracting. 

Along with identifying the six roles, we   also addressed how technology could assist the function. 

Then we discussed six challenges that   technology poses to any organization and offered a reasonable solution or   recommendation to the challenge. To   recap, those six challenges are: 

Number one, information overload; 

Two, overexposure;

Three, time requirements; 

Four, over reliance on automation; 

Five, miscommunication; and, 

Six, technology literacy. 

We wrapped up the lecture discussing how   to take technology system-wide and nine best practices for using and   implementing technology for performance management functions. 

This completes this lesson. 

 
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