The full instructions, resources, attachments, etc are all included. This is due in 48 hours.

t-Test

Read Assessment 3 Context [DOC] for important information on the following topics:

- Logic of the
*t*test. - Assumptions of the
*t*test. - Hypothesis testing for a
*t*test. - Effect size for a
*t*test. - Testing assumptions: The Shapiro-Wilk test and Levene’s test.
- Proper reporting of the independent-samples
*t*test. *t*, degrees of freedom, and*t*value.- Probability value.
- Effect size.

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

#### Various Forms of the *t *Test

- In what research situations should the paired-samples
*t*test be used rather than the independent-samples*t*test?

#### Two Versions of the Independent-Samples *t *Test

- Why are there are two different versions of the
*t*test on the SPSS printout and how do you decide which one is more appropriate?

#### Application of *t *Tests

- Is there a research question from your professional life or career specialization that can be addressed by an independent-samples
*t*test? - Why would a
*t*test be the appropriate analysis for this research question? - What are the variables and their scale of measurement?
- What is the expected outcome? (For example, “The group 1 mean score will be significantly greater than the group 2 mean score because….”)

### Assessment Instructions

Read Assessment 3 Context (linked in the Resources) to learn about the concepts used in this assessment.

You will use the following resources for this assessment. They are linked in the Resources.

- Complete this assessment using the
**DAA Template**. - Read the
**SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines**for a more complete understanding of the DAA Template and how to format and organize your assessment. - Refer to
**IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Instructions:****t****Tests**for additional information on using SPSS for this assessment. - If necessary, review the
**Copy/Export Output Instructions**to refresh your memory on how to perform these tasks. As with your previous assessments, your submission should be narrative with supporting statistical output (table and graphs) integrated into the narrative in the appropriate place (not all at the end of the document).

You will analyze the following variables in the **grades.sav** data set:

#### Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA

- Provide a context of the
**grades.sav**data set. - Include a definition of the specified variables (predictor, outcome) and corresponding scales of measurement.
- Specify the sample size of the data set.

#### Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA

- Analyze the assumptions of the
*t*test. - Paste the SPSS histogram output for
**gpa**and discuss your visual interpretations. - Paste SPSS descriptives output showing skewness and kurtosis values for
**gpa**and interpret them. - Paste SPSS output for the Shapiro-Wilk test of
**gpa**and interpret it. - Report the results of the Levene’s test and interpret it.
- Summarize whether or not the assumptions of the
*t*test are met.

#### Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA

- Specify a research question related to
**gender**and**gpa**. - Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
- Specify the alpha level.

#### Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA

- Paste the SPSS output of the
*t*test. - Report the results of the SPSS output using proper APA guidelines. Include the following:
*t*.- Degrees of freedom.
*t*value.*p*value.- Effect size.
- Interpretation of effect size.
- Means and standard deviations for each group. Mean difference.
- Interpret the results against the null hypothesis.

#### Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA

- Discuss the implications of this
*t*test as it relates to the research question. - Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of
*t*-test analysis.

#### APA Resources

Because this is a psychology course, you need to format this assessment according to APA guidelines. Additional resources about APA can be found in the Research Resources in the courseroom navigation menu. Use the resources to guide your work.

- American Psychological Association. (2010).
*Publication manual of the American Psychological Association*(6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

#### Required Resources

The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

##### Data Set Instructions

These are the same instructions presented for other assessments.

##### Assessment Template and Output Instructions

#### Suggested Resources

The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The XX-FP7864 – Quantitative Design and Analysis Library Guide can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

##### Statistics Concepts and Terminology

- Assessment 3 Context [DOC].
- Read this resource for information about the statistical terminology and concepts needed to complete this assessment.

##### SPSS Software and Procedures

*t* Test

##### Program-Specific Resources

These programs have opted to provide program-specific content designed to help you better understand how the subject matter is incorporated into your particular field of study.

**School of Psychology Learners**

- Delphin-Rittmon, M. E., Flanagan, E. H., Bellamy, C. D., Diaz, A., Johnson, K., Molta, V., … Ortiz, J. (2015). Learning from those we serve: Piloting a culture competence intervention co-developed by university faculty and persons in recovery.
*Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal*,*39*(1), 14–19.

**School of Education Learners**

- Stone, E. (2010).
*t*test, independent samples. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.),*Encyclopedia of research design*(pp. 1552–1556). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

##### Additional Resources for Further Exploration

- Khan Academy. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org
- This website offers resources covering a range of subjects, including statistics.