Anatomy & physiology | Science homework help

 

Part ONE

 

LESSON 1

 

Questions 1 to 25: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page

 

Break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

 

1. A patient is having problems with the function of the small intestines. What will this problem most likely?

 

affect?

 

A. Lubrication

 

B. Acid secretion

 

C. Nutrient absorption

 

D. Waste storage

 

2. A patient is told that she has a joint disorder that’s caused by an infection. What type of disorder does

 

this person have?

 

A. Bursitis

 

B. Osteoarthritis

 

C. Gout

 

D. Septic arthritis

 

3. What are the constituents of DNA?

 

A. Lipids, nitrogenous bases, and proteins

 

B. Sugars and lipids

 

C. Sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases

 

D. Proteins and sugars

 

4. A person needs to lie on the stomach to expose the back for a procedure. In which position will the

 

person be placed?

 

A. Prone

 

B. Supine

 

C. Fowler’s

 

D. Trendelenburg

 

5. Which one of the following processes is achieved through osmosis?

 

A. Transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus

 

B. Particles of oxygen filling the lungs

 

C. A cube of sugar dissolving in coffee

 

D. Water moving across the cell membrane

 

6. Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes lipids and steroids?

 

A. Smooth

 

B. Rough

 

C. Cilia

 

D. Flagella

 

7. A 22-year-old man is stabbed in the chest. Which organ systems are most likely to be directly injured?

 

A. Nervous and circulatory systems

 

B. Respiratory and circulatory systems

 

C. Respiratory and reproductive systems

 

D. Digestive and endocrine systems

 

8. During an emergency room examination for an injured arm, the physician palpates the arm’s entire

 

length, starting at the shoulder and ending at the fingers of the hand. This process takes him from a(n)

 

_______ position.

 

A. anterior to ventral

 

B. proximal to distal

 

C. right to left

 

D. coronal to transverse

 

9. When you do a push-up from the floor, what kind of movement describes the motion of your elbow?

 

A. Extension

 

B. Rotation

 

C. Flexion

 

D. Abduction

 

10. The skin plays a major role in

 

A. absorption of vitamin A and certain drugs.

 

B. temperature regulation and sensation.

 

C. retention of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide.

 

D. synthesis and storage of proteins.

 

11. What is the medical term for the kneecap?

 

A. Tarsus

 

B. Femur

 

C. Patella

 

D. Tibia

 

12. Muscles are attached to bones by

 

A. ligaments.

 

B. cartilage.

 

C. nerves.

 

D. tendons

 

13. A patient is infected with an organism that enters the cell and uses the cell’s energy parts to grow and

 

multiply. What type of organism is causing this patient’s infection?

 

A. Protozoa

 

B. Fungi

 

C. Virus

 

D. Bacteria

 

14. In which phase of the cell cycle are the chromosomes split?

 

A. Prophase

 

B. Metaphase

 

C. Telophase

 

D. Anaphase

 

15. What is the mechanism that maintains a stable environment within the body?

 

A. Prognosis

 

B. Symptoms

 

C. Syndrome

 

D. Equilibrium

 

16. A person is diagnosed with a problem with the gall bladder. Which part of the abdomen will be

 

examined for this problem?

 

A. Left upper quadrant

 

B. Right lower quadrant

 

C. Right upper quadrant

 

D. Left lower quadrant

 

17. A person has a sideways curvature of the vertebral column. What type of curvature does this person

 

have?

 

A. Kyphosis

 

B. Ptosis

 

C. Scoliosis

 

D. Lordosis

 

18. The process of breaking a complex substance down into smaller components is called

 

A. catabolism.

 

B. neutralization.

 

C. anabolism.

 

D. metabolism.

 

19. A patient has a problem with adjusting water balance and tissue metabolism. Which structure within the

 

endocrine system regulates these functions?

 

A. Thymus

 

B. Pituitary gland

 

C. Adrenal glands

 

D. Pancreas

 

20. While being examined, a patient is found to have problems moving the thumb. Which type of joint is

 

being affected?

 

A. Saddle

 

B. Hinge

 

C. Gliding

 

D. Pivot

 

21. During football practice, a high school student injures the left pectoral girdle. Which bones are affected

 

by this injury?

 

A. Clavicle and scapula

 

B. Scapula and humerus

 

C. Clavicle and ischium

 

D. Scapula and radius

 

22. The function of smooth muscle is to provide

 

A. rapid contractions.

 

B. involuntary movement.

 

C. cushioning around the joints.

 

D. skeletal support.

 

23. A eukaryotic cell in a human body has just reproduced assexually. Which of the following has mostl

 

likely just occurred?

 

A. Mitosis

 

B. Meiosis

 

C. Fertilization

 

D. Metastasis

 

24. Glucose is the main source of cell energy, but any glucose that can’t be used immediately is stored for

 

future use as

 

A. fat.

 

B. carbohydrates.

 

C. galactose.

 

D. glycogen.

 

25. Chromosomes can be seen only during

 

A. neutralization.

 

B. active transport.

 

C. cell division.

 

D. meiosis.

 

 

 

PART TWO

 

LESSON 2

 

Questions 1 to 25: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page

 

break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

 

1. A person is complaining of muscle weakness, numbness, paralysis, and pain. Which disorder of the

 

nervous system is this person most likely experiencing?

 

A. Carpal tunnel syndrome

 

B. Peripheral neuropathy

 

C. Meningitis

 

D. Myasthenia gravis

 

2. Where are keratinized cells found in the body?

 

A. Hair and nails

 

B. Subcutaneous layer of the skin

 

C. Capillaries and nerve endings

 

D. Sweat and sebaceous glands

 

3. The three membranous coverings that protect the brain and spinal cord are called

 

A. gyri.

 

B. pons.

 

C. meninges.

 

D. sulci.

 

4. A seven-year-old boy breaks his tibia and requires immobilization by a hard cast for six weeks until the

 

break heals. A potential consequence of this therapy is atrophy of the

 

A. gastrocnemius.

 

B. trapezius.

 

C. serratus anterior.

 

D. pectoralis major.

 

5. The skin plays a major role in

 

A. storage of fatty tissure for energy.

 

B. retention of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide.

 

C. synthesis and storage of proteins.

 

D. absorption of vitamin A and certain drugs.

 

6. The __________ gland regulates the function of many other endocrine glands.

 

A. thyroid

 

B. thymus

 

C. adrenal

 

D. pituitary

 

7. Structurally, what is the difference between the dermis and the epidermis?

 

A. The epidermis is thicker.

 

B. The epidermis consists of mostly adipose cells.

 

C. The dermis contains more types of tissue.

 

D. The dermis is made mostly of dead cells.

 

8. The muscle contractions that propel food through your intestines are controlled by the _______ nervous

 

system.

 

A. voluntary

 

B. peripheral

 

C. central

 

D. autonomic

 

9. A secretary who experiences pain, swelling, and tingling sensations in her hands and arms may suffer

 

from

 

A. bell’s palsy.

 

B. neuritis.

 

C. carpal tunnel syndrome.

 

D. trigeminal neuralgia.

 

10. A 6-year-old boy is noticeably taller than his classmates. He stands 5 feet, 7 inches tall. What glandular

 

problem do you suspect he may have?

 

A. Dysfunction of the posterior pituitary gland

 

B. Dysfunction of the anterior pituitary gland

 

C. Dysfunction of the parathyroid gland

 

D. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland

 

11. A person is diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. What is another name for this disorder?

 

A. Addison’s disease

 

B. Cushing’s syndrome

 

C. Hashimoto’s disease

 

D. Graves’ disease

 

12. After an eye examination a person is told that glasses are needed for nearsightedness. What common

 

disorder of the eye is this person experiencing?

 

A. Myopia

 

B. Amblyopia

 

C. Hyperopia

 

D. Presbyopia

 

13. Which process is performed by the endocrine system?

 

A. Breakdown of hormones into simpler molecules

 

B. Secretion of hormones from cells

 

C. Transport of hormones to muscles

 

D. Excretion of hormones from the body

 

14. In addition to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane, a single neuron possesses

 

A. one dendrite and several axons.

 

B. one nucleus and many neuroglia.

 

C. many nuclei and one neurilemma.

 

D. several dendrites and one axon.

 

15. Which part of the ear is normally filled with fluid to aid in the transmission of sound waves?

 

A. Semicircular canals

 

B. Auditory canal

 

C. Cochlea

 

D. Malleus

 

16. A person is having problems chewing. Which cranial nerve is most likely affected in this person?

 

A. Accessory

 

B. Trochlear

 

C. Trigeminal

 

D. Abducens

 

17. The portion of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities is a subdivision of the _______

 

nervous system.

 

A. sympathetic

 

B. parasympathetic

 

C. peripheral

 

D. central

 

18. A 63-year-old man has become progressively hard of hearing. He’s a retired airplane mechanic. He also

 

notices a lot of wax in his ears. What kind of hearing loss is this man likely to have?

 

A. Infectious and sensorineural

 

B. Infectious

 

C. Conductive

 

D. Conductive and sensorineural

 

19. Which part of the brain is responsible for the maintenance of muscle tone and the coordination of

 

muscle movements?

 

A. Hippocampus

 

B. Hypothalamus

 

C. Cerebellum

 

D. Midbrain

 

20. A young man happens to spot an ex-girlfriend he’s trying to avoid. Why does his mouth become dry?

 

A. His central nervous system shuts down saliva production.

 

B. His sympathetic nervous system overrides the parasympathetic stimulation for

 

saliva production.

 

C. His cervical plexus overrides the parasympathetic stimulation for saliva production.

 

D. His cranial nerves shut down saliva production.

 

21. A 15-year-old gymnast falls and suffers an injury to her brachial plexus. What action might now be

 

difficult for her?

 

A. Extending her wrist

 

B. Flexing her knee

 

C. Flexing her foot

 

D. Extending her neck

 

22. Acne is an example of a(n)

 

A. nodule.

 

B. papule.

 

C. vesicle.

 

D. ulcer.

 

23. The hypothalamus is considered the brain of the brain because it

 

A. controls voluntary movement.

 

B. maintains balance.

 

C. regulates vital body functions.

 

D. produces cerebrospinal fluid.

 

24. A 60-year-old woman is diagnosed with a tumor in her left temporal lobe. The surgeons remove the

 

tumor along with a large portion of her temporal lobe. After surgery, the woman might have difficulty with

 

A. detecting taste.

 

B. moving her arms.

 

C. sensing pain.

 

D. speaking fluently.

 

25. Impairment of the vagus nerve may affect the ability to move the

 

A. tongue.

 

B. face.

 

C. eyes.

 

D. lungs.

 

 

 

 

 

PART THREE

 

Lesson 3

 

Questions 1 to 45: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page

 

break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

 

1. As we grow older, our hair turns grey because of a reduction in an enzyme that neutralizes

 

A. lunula.

 

B. keratin.

 

C. hydrogen peroxide.

 

D. sebum.

 

2. A 30-year-old man is involved in a serious car accident from which he suffers internal injuries. The man

 

requires surgery to remove most of his pancreas. What condition may develop as a possible consequence

 

of this surgery?

 

A. Diabetes

 

B. Bell’s palsy

 

C. Cushing’s syndrome

 

D. Acromegaly

 

3. A young child has a neurological disorder that causes spastic paralysis. What disease does this child most

 

likely have?

 

A. Myasthenia gravis

 

B. Huntington’s disease

 

C. Cerebral palsy

 

D. Subdural hematoma

 

4. A middle-aged patient is diagnosed with a bone disorder caused by vitamin D deficiency. Which type of

 

disorder is caused by a lack of vitamin D?

 

A. Osteomalacia

 

B. Osteomyelitis

 

C. Osteoporosis

 

D. Scurvy

 

5. A patient presents to the emergency room with a severe headache that began after a bike accident, in

 

which he suffered a blow to his head. A CT scan shows bleeding between the dura mater and the

 

arachnoid layers. What is the correct diagnosis?

 

A. Subdural hematoma

 

B. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

 

C. Epidural hemorrhage

 

D. Epidural hematoma

 

6. Several bones form the _______, which is attached to leg bones and muscles.

 

A. xiphoid process

 

B. pelvic girdle

 

C. obturator foramen

 

D. axial skeleton

 

7. A 32-year-old man has trouble tying his shoelaces, writing, and walking in a straight line. A computed

 

tomographic (special x-ray) scan of the brain would likely reveal that the man has an abnormality in the

 

A. cerebellum.

 

B. diencephalon.

 

C. brain stem.

 

D. cerebrum.

 

8. What movement are you demonstrating if you stand with your arms down at your sides and lift them up

 

to shoulder height?

 

A. Adduction

 

B. Abduction

 

C. Rotation

 

D. Flexion

 

9. On what part of the body are sudoriferous glands present in highest concentrations?

 

A. On the scalp and thighs

 

B. Under the arms and on the palms of hands

 

C. On the back and behind the knees

 

D. On the neck and arms

 

10. A medical procedure performed to keep the ends of a broken bone together is called

 

A. reduction.

 

B. casting.

 

C. remodeling.

 

D. traction.

 

11. Both cranial and spinal cavities are contained within the _______ cavity.

 

A. dorsal

 

B. thoracic

 

C. anterior

 

D. orbital

 

12. Respiration, heart rate, and digestion are all regulated by the _______ system.

 

A. autonomic nervous

 

B. peripheral nervous

 

C. sympathetic

 

D. limbic

 

13. The part of the brain that translates the impulses that the eyes receive into vision is the

 

_______ lobe.

 

A. frontal

 

B. parietal

 

C. temporal

 

D. occipital

 

14. Bone cells that deposit new bone are called

 

A. endostea.

 

B. erythrocytes.

 

C. osteoblasts.

 

D. osteoclasts.

 

15. The white matter that provides for communication between the right and left sides of the cerebrum is

 

called the

 

A. central fissure.

 

B. cerebral aqueduct.

 

C. choroid plexus.

 

D. corpus callosum.

 

16. A protein molecule that can affect a chemical reaction in the body without being affected by the

 

reaction is a(n)

 

A. phospholipid.

 

B. carbohydrate.

 

C. steroid.

 

D. enzyme.

 

17. A patient has blue eyes. Which part of the eye has color?

 

A. Retina

 

B. Vitreous humor

 

C. Sclera

 

D. Iris

 

18. What type of fracture, common among children, is characterized by incomplete breakage of the bone?

 

A. Compound fracture

 

B. Comminuted fracture

 

C. Greenstick fracture

 

D. Closed fracture

 

19. The inner ear contains three semicircular canals that are exclusively used for

 

A. maintaining balance.

 

B. hearing faint sounds.

 

C. equalizing air pressure.

 

D. transmitting sound waves.

 

20. By what process is a particular substance engulfed by a cell membrane and then digested?

 

A. Diffusion

 

B. Phagocytosis

 

C. Pinocytosis

 

D. Osmosis

 

21. The hormones stored in the posterior pituitary are released only when triggered by the

 

A. pancreas.

 

B. parathyroid.

 

C. hypothalamus.

 

D. thalamus.

 

22. A patient has a disease process that affects the adrenal cortex. Which hormone level will be affected by

 

this disease process?

 

A. Growth hormone

 

B. Adrenocorticosteroids

 

C. Norepinephrine

 

D. Glucagon

 

23. Infant bones are very soft and pliable because of

 

A. mineral deposition in select areas of the body.

 

B. incomplete ossification at birth.

 

C. cartilage formation throughout the body.

 

D. fluid accumulation between collagenous fibers.

 

24. A 27-year-old woman suffers a fracture of the tibia where a part of the bone is pushed through the

 

skin. How would this fracture be classified?

 

A. Spiral

 

B. Compound

 

C. Comminuted

 

D. Hairline

 

25. The second largest bone in the body, and the only bone in the upper arm, is the

 

A. humerus.

 

B. radius.

 

C. scapula.

 

D. ulna.

 

26. The study of tissues as a part of microscopic anatomy is known as

 

A. histology.

 

B. physiology.

 

C. endocrinology.

 

D. cytology.

 

27. During a windstorm, something is blown into your eye causing you discomfort. You immediately rub

 

your eye to try to remove the particle. What part of the eye might be irritated by this rubbing?

 

A. Retina

 

B. Optic nerve

 

C. Sclera

 

D. Cornea

 

28. Movement across a cell membrane that occurs through a selectively permeable membrane is called

 

A. filtration.

 

B. facilitated diffusion.

 

C. diffusion.

 

D. osmosis.

 

29. Glucose is an example of a

 

A. triglyceride.

 

B. monosaccharide.

 

C. polysaccharide.

 

D. diglyceride.

 

30. A state of _______ is necessary for proper cell function within the body.

 

A. bacteriostasis

 

B. homeostasis

 

C. ionization

 

D. neutralization

 

31. The basic unit of structure and function of all living things is the

 

A. atom.

 

B. ion.

 

C. molecule.

 

D. cell.

 

32. _______ carry messages away from the cell body.

 

A. Myelin

 

B. Axons

 

C. Neurilemma

 

D. Dendrites

 

33. All 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain, spinal cord, and all parts of

 

the body, are called _______ nerves.

 

A. motor

 

B. sensory

 

C. mixed

 

D. cranial

 

34. The simplest response to a stimulus is a

 

A. motor movement.

 

B. reflex.

 

C. parasympathetic response.

 

D. sympathetic response.

 

35. The loss of heart muscle tissue is detrimental because the tissue

 

A. grows too rapidly.

 

B. doesn’t repair itself.

 

C. heals very slowly.

 

D. builds up in the heart.

 

36. In which step of cell division does the nucleus disappear and spindle fibers are formed?

 

A. Metaphase

 

B. Prophase

 

C. Telophase

 

D. Anaphase

 

37. A 45-year-old man dislocates his shoulder. To restore proper joint position, the doctor must maneuver

 

the head of the

 

A. humerus back into the socket of the clavicle.

 

B. femur back into the socket of the clavicle.

 

C. femur back into the socket of the scapula.

 

D. humerus back into the socket of the scapula.

 

38. The body’s master gland is the

 

A. testes.

 

B. thyroid.

 

C. pituitary.

 

D. thymus.

 

39. A patient is scheduled to have the parathyroid glands removed. What will the removal of these glands

 

most likely affect?

 

A. Calcium level

 

End of exam

 

B. Level of growth hormone

 

C. Genetic transfer

 

D. Red blood cell production

 

40. Which membrane covers the brain surface?

 

A. Dura mater

 

B. Pia mater

 

C. Periosteal mater

 

D. Arachnoid mater

 

41. _______, or afferent, neurons carry messages toward the spinal cord and brain.

 

A. Sensory

 

B. Motor

 

C. Interneurons

 

D. Associative

 

42. Which pair of hormones exerts opposite effects?

 

A. Calcitonin and epinephrine

 

B. Insulin and glucagon

 

C. Growth hormone and insulin

 

D. Thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone

 

43. Which neurotransmitter is needed for muscle function?

 

A. Epinephrine

 

B. Serotonin

 

C. Acetylcholine

 

D. Norepinephrine

 

44. A patient comes in to see the physician after stepping on a rusty nail. Which health problem is this

 

patient prone to developing?

 

A. Guillain-Barré syndrome

 

B. Neuritis

 

C. Tetanus

 

D. Myasthenia gravis

 

45. A patient has fractured the right trochanter. Where is this patient’s injury?

 

A. Femur

 

B. Neck

 

C. Elbow

 

D. Lower leg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

 

During your study, you may have found one of the medical

 

disorders you read about to be especially interesting. This

 

assignment gives you an opportunity to apply what you’ve

 

learned by doing some research in outside sources and

 

increasing your understanding of one disorder.

 

PROCEDURE

 

Go to http://lessons.pennfoster.com/pdf/sp0754.pdf and

 

read the instructions for research papers. Select a single medical

 

disorder that affects the skeletal, muscular, integumentary,

 

nervous, sensory, or endocrine systems. Consult the software

 

program Anatomy & Physiology Revealed 3.0, and determine

 

the Histology and possible Imaging studies used to diagnose the

 

disorder. Utilize other resources including textbooks, journal

 

articles, and primary websites to validate your findings. Then

 

prepare a detailed report on the medical disorder, including

 

the following elements:

 

1. Definition

 

2. Method(s) of diagnosis

 

3. Symptoms and complications of the disorder

 

4. Diagnostic findings from Imaging and Histology

 

5. Treatment of the disorder

 

6. Methods of prevention, if any

 

7. Directions for future research

 

The information from this course should be incorporated but

 

not limited to what you’ve learned while studying this course.

 

81

 

82 Research Project

 

GOAL

 

This assignment is designed to help you apply what you’ve

 

learned from your lessons by researching and writing about a

 

medical disorder you’ve studied and to give you an opportunity

 

to demonstrate your written communication and research skills.

 

WRITING GUIDELINES

 

1. Type your submission, double-spaced, in a standard

 

print font, Times New Roman or Arial Font size 12. Use

 

a standard document format with 1-inch margins. (Do

 

not use any fancy or cursive fonts.)

 

2. Include the following information at the top of your paper:

 

a. Name and complete mailing address

 

b. Student number

 

c. Course title and number (Anatomy and Physiology 1,

 

SCI 135)

 

d. Research project number (40943400)

 

3. Read the assignment carefully and address the topic

 

suggested. Use proper citation in either APA or MLA style.

 

4. Be specific. Limit your submission to the main

 

topic identified.

 

5. Include a reference page in either APA or MLA style. On

 

this page, list websites, journals, and all other references

 

used in preparing the submission.

 

6. Proofread your work carefully. Check for correct spelling,

 

grammar, punctuation, and capitalization.

 

Research Project 83

 

GRADING CRITERIA

 

Your grade will be based on the following criteria:

 

Content 40 percent

 

Written communication 40 percent

 

Format 20 percent

 

Here’s a brief explanation of each of these points.

 

Content

 

The student

 

Provides a clear discussion of the assigned topic or issue

 

Addresses the subject in complete sentences, not just

 

simple yes or no statements

 

Supports his or her opinion by citing specific information

 

from the assigned websites and any other references using

 

correct APA or MLA guidelines for citations and references

 

Stays focused on the assigned issues

 

Writes in his or her own words and uses quotation

 

marks to indicate direct quotations

 

Written Communication

 

The student

 

Includes an introductory paragraph, a body,

 

and a concluding paragraph

 

Uses correct grammar, spelling, punctuation,

 

and sentence structure

 

Provides clear organization (for example, uses words like

 

first, however, on the other hand, and so on, consequently,

 

since, next, and when)

 

Makes sure the paper contains no typographical errors

 

84 Research Project

 

Format

 

The paper is double-spaced and typed using either Times

 

New Roman or Arial in font size 12. It includes the student’s

 

Name and complete mailing address

 

Student number

 

Course title and number (Anatomy and Physiology 1,

 

SCI 135)

 

Research project number (40943400)

 

 
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